Gmelina and Mahogany Farming. Many people are asking which of the two most common trees gmelina (gmelina arborea), and mahogany (swietenia macrophylla), is better and there is actually no direct and definite answer to this question. But before you decide on what to plant, either for commercial or personal use, it is important to read this article if you have time as this could give you the whole idea of which is which.
Planting both trees since I can remember more than 30 years ago, I think I have, at least an authority to compare which is which in terms of several factors that you can read below.
I am going to tell you a short story first before we go into specifics.
Silay City, Negros Occidental, 1984
I was eight years old. Our house was made of bamboo and cogon in a rural barangay in Silay City.
The new encargado (hacienda caretaker) from Bacolod City brought 10 gmelina seedlings and gave them to my father. My late father planted all seedlings inside our hilly half-hectare land. My family was the very first person to have gmelina trees in the whole barangay. No one had any idea what the tree was all about until after five years when my mother decided to cut the four biggest trees and used them during the repair of our house. In 1989, we started living in a house made of lumber and a roof made of galvanized steel.
Tiyo Nani, the encargado who gave the seedlings advised my father to clean the stump of the fallen tree because he said it will regrow. He also told my father how to make gmelina seedlings and to take care of the younger trees.
When my oldest sister got married in 1992, my parents gave gmelina lumber to her which was enough to build a new house for her new family.
Around 1986, the landlord (haciendero), (former vice Gov. of Negros Occidental and father of now popular ABS-CBN Bacolod Anchorman) ordered to plant mahogany on one hectare of flat land at around 1.5-meter distance from each other. After a year, he ordered to plant another hectare at the same distance. That was 35 years ago and now the biggest you can get is 8 inches in diameter.
For 32 years, a handful of trees were cut from this mahogany plantation as the current owner, the popular anchorman, don’t want to sell the whole plantation to interested buyers citing sentimental values. The biggest trees are around 8 x 8 inches across while others are as small as bamboo.
Now let’s go back to the gmelina which was first planted by my father.
My mother passed away in 1994 while my father rested last 2014 at the age of 86. I lost count of how many times we (siblings) cut the same original trees. Maybe every six years or longer, I really lost count. Since it was first planted in 1983, only four of the original 10 remain today (but of course we have had new plantations since 1999). These four original gmelina trees have not been cut for more than 12 years because we (siblings) decided to make them a living remembrance of our parents. Sounds a little bit emotional but that’s part of the story.
After graduating from College in 1999, I and my older brother planted more than 100 gmelina trees and around 15 mahogany trees. Since then, I worked here in Batangas and our plantation was left to become a forest.
When I retired from my company and decided to go on self-employed last year, I returned to Negros and decided to harvest the 20-year-old gmelina trees because I wanted to plant bananas, while the next generations of gmelina are growing up.
Here are the exact quantity and amounts I got from that small logging operation after I secured the necessary papers from the authorities.
Out of more than 100 trees planted, only 64 actually grew up and the rest were destroyed by invasive vines due to lack of maintenance.
There were two trees that measured almost 3 x 3 feet across but the inside is damaged. This is a common problem for gmelina that are more than 10 years old.
Here is a short detail of the total money I got from that 64 gmelina trees. This is the net price offered by the buyer on the farm site.
- 11,652 – total number of board feet
- ₱139,824 – total cost at ₱12/bd.ft
- ₱19,950 – the cost of 133 sacks of charcoal at ₱150/sack
- ₱159,774 – total income from 64 gmelina trees
Okay, the above is just a story based on actual experience. Let’s go to the point of comparing gmelina to mahogany.
Germinating, Planting, Growing, and Maintenance
Mahogany is easier and faster to germinate than gmelina. In our case, we open the gmelina fruit and sun-dry its seeds for faster germination. Mahogany germinates between 7 to 10 days, while gmelina starts to germinate usually after two weeks.
Both trees can be transplanted when they reach 1 foot tall.
As for gmelina, it is best to remove the bigger portion of older leaves when planting because its main trunk is not as strong as mahogany. It could bend during heavy rain as its leaves are heavy and wide.
If you need a good result, it is advisable to maintain cutting of leaves of gmelina within a year until its main truck is strong enough to hold its leaves.
Gmelina and mahogany are both ideal to be planted on slopes and hilly types of land. Planting both species in flat lands has a poor result. Both trees needs enough water.
Mahogany is more resistant to tall grass and other shrubs and trees compared to gmelina during the first year after planting. Cleaning is really needed for both trees.
From the second to the fifth year, there will be a big difference in the growth of both trees. Gmelina size can be double that of mahogany in most cases. This is where gmelina is in a big advantage.
In the sixth year, gmelina can be harvested at the size of 8 x 8 inches across while most mahogany can have a maximum size of 3 x 3 inches across. Mahogany can be harvested after an average of 12 to 15 years. Gmelina can be harvested every five years without replanting.
Price of Lumber
Mahogany is always ₱3 to ₱5 more expensive than gmelina, but this cost difference will be nothing when we consider the length of time of growing both trees, and the replanting process.
Uses and Durability
The uses differ from province to province.
In my hometown in Negros Occidental. Gmelina is the favorite of many in-house building applications because it is stronger and does not break apart. Gmelina is also not prone to pests especially bokbok while mahogany lumber is prone to almost every pest.
Here in Batangas, mahogany is preferred in furniture. I never have seen someone use gmelina as good lumber here, maybe because Batanguños are not used to it.
If we talk about the overall strength, mahogany is harder and difficult to cut, but gmelina is harder to break. I will use gmelina as a scaffold than risking my life with mahogany.
Conclusion: Are Gmelina and Mahogany Farming the Right Business for You?
Depending on which part of the country you are located in, the choice is yours. I can say gmelina is better because I have enough experience with it and it is in high demand in Negros Occidental, and I can also tell a lot of reasons why we did not use mahogany in our house despite we have enough trees that can be cut into lumber.
Oh by the way, before I forgot, those 15 mahogany trees we planted together with those 100 gmelinas are still standing now besides our ancestral house. The biggest is around 14 x 14 inches across, while the smallest is around 8 x 8 inches across. I have big plans for these trees for personal use so I preserve them for later use.
Since many people are more interested in planting mahogany than gmelina, here is a short case study.
Assuming you have 1 hectare of idle land that you want to plant mahogany trees, the best distance for faster-growing is 3 x 3 meters. Yes, you can plant at a 1.5 x 1.5 meters distance but be ready to wait forever for your trees to grow.
1 hectare of land = 1,089 mahogany trees
10 years of growing, you can get an average of 6×6 inches
Less 10% mortality if properly maintained (109)
Assuming you get each tree a 6 x 6 x 12 = 36 brd.ft/tree x 980 trees = 35,280 brd.ft
- 35,280 x ₱32 (estimated farm price after 10 years from now) = ₱1,128,960
- ₱1,128,960 + ₱588,000 (cost of 2,940 sacks of charcoal at ₱200/sack) = total gross ₱1,716,960
- ₱24,000 – cost of seedlings
- ₱15,000 land preparation and planting labor
- ₱12,000 – 2 year maintenance cost (tabas every 2 months at ₱1,000)
- ₱12,000 – next 3 years maintenance cost (tabas every 3 months at ₱1,000)
- ₱10,000 – other occasional expenses like cleaning during typhoons
- Total expenses = ₱73,000
Total projected net income = ₱1,716,960 – ₱73,000 = ₱1,643,960
You can double the profit if you plant Gmelina instead of Mahogany though.
Buyers usually shoulder all harvesting expenses.
Mahogany will kill everything under it once surpassed the 5-year mark so no need for maintenance.
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